10 Different Types Of Stones Used In General Building Works

This is a list of 10 different types of stones commonly used in building construction.

Each stone has some specific characteristics to be used in specific building work.

So if you want to:

  • Recognize various stones easily.
  • Select the right one for a specific construction task.

Then you’ll love this post.

Let’s dive right in.

10 Different Types Of Stones

Different Types Of Stones Used In General Building Works

1. Marble

It’s a metamorphic rock.

Basically, It’s a white rock with very little dirt and impurities inside it.

But Marble is also available in blue, green, yellow black, and red color.

And, these color varieties happen due to the presence of impurities (such as clay, silt, sand, iron oxides,) in marble.

Marble is a very strong stone.

Marble as a building material

Generally, its compressive strength varies from 70MPa to 75MPa.

This type of stone is uniform in texture, least porous, and takes an excellent polish.

And, it can be easily cut and carved into different shapes.

Uses Of Marble:

Marble is used as both ornamental and general construction.

As facing and architectural items, this type of stone is used in facing slabs, Columns, floors, stairs, landings, parapets, etc.

2. Granite

It’s an igneous rock.

This type of stone is composed of quartz, felspar, mica, and minerals.

And, it is:

  • Hard and durable;
  • High resistance to weathering;
  • Available in grey, green, brown, pink, and red colors;

And, the texture of granite varies with its quality.

Granite as a building material

And its Specify gravity is 2.7 and compressive strength is 65 Mpa to 130 Mpa.

Uses Of Granite:

In construction, granite is used for:

  • Ornamental works;
  • Road metal;
  • Railway ballast;
  • Aggregate for concrete;
  • Construction of bridges, piers, marine works, etc.

3. Basalt

Basalt is also an igneous rock.

This type of stone is also known as Traps.

It is:

  • Compact, hard, and heavy;
  • Available in red, yellow-grey, blue and greenish-black Color;
  • High resistance to weathering.

And, Its:

  • Specific gravity is 3;
  • Compressive strength varies from 200 Mpa to 350 Mpa;
  • Structure is medium to fine-grained;
  • Weight is between 18 KN/m3 and 29 KN/m3.
Basalt: a type of stone

Uses Of Basalt:

This type of stone is used for:

  • Ornamental purposes;
  • Railroad ballast;
  • Rubble masonry works for bridge piers;
  • Aggregates for concrete;
  • River walls, dams, etc.

4. Limestone

This type of stone is a sedimentary rock.

Most Limestones are invariably fine-textured. Some of them may contain fossils.

Limestone in construction

This stone has various textures and structures.

And, color varies greatly in limestones. It depends on the presence of accessory minerals finely dispersed in the carbonate matrix.

Uses Of Limestone:

You can’t use all limestones for construction.

Some varieties, which are rich in clay or are very soft, may not be suitable.

But some limestones can be great building materials.

Especially those which are compact, fine-textured, free from cavities and cracks.

Because these limestones can easily be dressed and polished.

And they can be used for:

  • Flooring;
  • Roofing;
  • Pavements, and
  • Base material for cement.

Yet you should avoid using them in:

  • Areas where the air is polluted with industrial gases, and
  • Coastal regions where saltish winds can attack them.

5. Sandstone

Sandstone in construction

Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock.

It is:

  • Available in a variety of formations;
  • Composed of quartz and feldspar;
  • Found in different colors such as white, grey, red, brown, yellow, and dark gray.


  • Compressive strength ranges between 20MPa and 170MPa;
  • Specify gravity varies from 1.85 to 2.7.

Uses Of Sandstone:

It is used in the construction of heavy structures in combination with silica cement.

Other than this, it is also used in:

  • Masonry works;
  • Dams;
  • Bridge piers, and
  • River walls.

6. Slate

This type of stone is a metamorphic rock.

Slate consists of quartz, mica, and clay minerals.

And it is:

  • Non-absorbent, compact, and fine-grained;
  • Available in black, dark blue, grey, reddish-brown, etc.


  • Compression strength changes from 100MPa to 200MPa;
  • Specific gravity is 2.6 to 2.7.

Uses Of Slate:

It is used as roofing tiles, slabs, and pavements.

Slate as a building stone

7. Gneiss

It’s a metamorphic rock.

And, It is:

  • Composed of felspars, Quartz, ferromagnesian minerals, and mica;
  • Available in light grey, pink, purple, greenish-gray, and dark grey.

This type of stone has fine to coarse grains and Its compressive strength varies from 50MPa to 200MPa.

Gneiss: a type of stone

Uses Of Gneiss:

The presence of deleterious substances in the gneiss’s constituents makes it unsuitable for construction.

Yet It can be used for minor construction.

However, hard varieties of this stone may be used in building construction works.

8. Travertine

It’s a sedimentary rock.

It is characterized by:

  • Layering (they are more or less obvious);
  • Porous texture (very similar to a sponge);
  • Small cavities (gaps left after the decomposition of organic residue).


  • Specific gravity is 1.68, and
  • Compressive strength varies from 80-120 MPa.

Travertine can be polished to a smooth, shiny finish.

Travertine stone

And it is available in a variety of colors from grey to coral-red.

Uses Of Travertine

In the modern era, its uses and applications are rapidly expanding.

And it’s being found in:

  • Arrangement of public and private spaces;
  • Indoors and outdoors;
  • In constructions, fittings, finishes.


  • Horizontal and vertical tiles in floors, pillars, facades, curbs, alleys, access roads, etc.;
  • Chimneys, stairs, windows, thresholds, paving, garden paths, courtyards, sanitary ware, kitchen countertops, etc.

9. Quartzite

It’s a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock.

Quartzite: a type of stone

Mainly, Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure.

And, It is:

  • Hard;
  • Brittle;
  • Crystalline;
  • Durable; and
  • Available in different colors like white, gray, yellowish.

It has a fine to a coarse-grained structure.

And, mostly granular and branded.

Quartzite is composed of feldspar and mica in small quantities.

And, its crushing strength is between 50MPa to 300MPa.

Uses Of Quartzite:

It’s a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls, as roofing tiles, as flooring, and as steps.

Its use for kitchen countertops is expanding rapidly as it is harder and more resistant to stains than granite.

10. Laterite

Laterite: a building stone

It’s both soil and rock.

Laterite contains a high percentage of iron oxide.

And it can be easily cut into blocks.

Laterite is found in soft and hard varieties and its strength is increased with seasoning.

The compressive strength of laterite is between 1.9MPa and 2.3 MPa.

And they can be brownish, red, yellow, brown, and grey in color.

Ues Of Laterite

It is used as a building stone.

But its outer surface needs to be plastered.


That’s it for various types of stone commonly used in general building works.

I hope this list will help you to choose the right stone for your next project.

Now It’s your turn:

Which stone in this list you haven’t worked with yet?

Or maybe there’s a stone out there that you use most but I overlooked.

So go ahead and leave a comment below.